Research project provides insight into information structure, price structure and functionalities for EV roaming


Energy is increasingly being generated using solar and wind power, which results in a variable supply. At the same time, households are using more and more electrical appliances and the number of electric vehicles is growing, bringing greater peaks and troughs in demand. On the other hand, less power is now needed for heating due to insulation and other energy-saving measures. In short, the use and supply of energy will be very different in the near future compared to the way things were 50 or even five years ago. The energy system will need to be ‘smarter’ to maintain a balance between supply and demand. Information technology and big data will be needed to predict and steer this interaction.

Allego, Eneco eMobility, GreenFlux, Jedlix, NKL and TNO saw electric mobility as a potentially crucial link in a stable and efficient energy network. They therefore joined forces in 2017 to develop an information and communication structure for the future: Emobility Communication & Information System Structure (ECISS). This project was funded by the TKI Urban Energy subsidy programme run by the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Why this project?

The aim of the ECISS project was to develop an information and communication structure to connect smart energy infrastructures of the future to electric transport. Improved information supply, structure, protocol and access will increase transparency and allow new services for and with electric transport to be developed or enhanced. Developing this jointly rather than individually makes it cheaper for all involved, and easier for new operators to enter the market and offer new charging services. This contributes to the continuing development of smart charging in relation to the built environment, lower costs for the user and a reliable and sustainable protocol.

To achieve this, knowledge is required:

  • Flexible Reference Architecture to provide insight into roles;
  • Insight into current functionalities in software and system technology (use cases);
  • Insight into price structure and transparency and the wishes of the end user;
  • Exploration of new functionalities.

To gain these insights, the ECISS partners conducted research in various work packages. They then recorded the knowledge they acquired in documentation that is freely available to all, so that other stakeholders can also continue to construct a transparent information and communication structure with a stable link between energy and electric mobility.


The work packages have yielded various products and use cases that other parties can use. The products are often technical in nature and are intended to provide information and a platform to other parties active in the world of electric transport, energy or the built environment. The use cases have been drawn up on the basis of the energy/mobility system. Questions related to price transparency have expressly centred on the end user. Under ECISS, the following deliverables have been produced:

Flexible Reference Architecture (deliverable 1.1 and 1.2):
In order to introduce new services successfully or to improve existing services within the e-mobility ecosystem, the actors involved need to understand who is directly or indirectly related to whom and what are the possible or foreseeable consequences of change. The Flexible Reference Architecture provides insight and is a valuable contribution to the continuing development of a sustainable e-mobility ecosystem.

Download of both deliverables: Flexible E-mobility Reference Architecture & Information Objects

Download attachment newly developed architecture

Additional functionalities (deliverable 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3)
In software and system engineering, a use case is a list of actions or event steps that define the interactions between a role or event (UML) and the system to achieve a goal. The specification documents offer new or existing operators the opportunity to further develop new smart charging solutions based on OCPI. ECISS demonstrates in a test that both provider and user can obtain financial or other benefits from smart charging.

Price structure and transparency (deliverable 3.1 and 3.2)
The price of charging an electric car at (semi-)public charging stations is made up of various components. As a result, it is not always clear to end users what charging actually costs. Within the National Agenda for Charging Infrastructure (Nationale Agenda Laadinfrastructuur, NAL), it has been agreed that in the Netherlands the price for end users should be made transparent. ECISS has investigated the wishes of end users regarding insight into the price before, during and after charging. Smart charging gives an extra dimension to price transparency. ECISS is making a proposal on how CPOs can make the price of smart charging transparent in order to provide insight to the EV driver. The results will be passed on to the NAL price transparency working group.

Explore new functions (deliverable 5.1 and 5.2)
Electric transport and renewable energy are new markets that are developing rapidly. New technical applications such as blockchain can contribute to this development. ECISS has conducted research into the added value of blockchain applications within smart charging. Depending on the purpose of smart charging, blockchain does not automatically seem to be the most logical application. Smart charging technology itself is also still under development and subject to change. ISO 151118 has been developed to make Vehicle to Grid (V2G) charging possible in the future. ECISS provides insight into the developments within ISO 15118 that can be used by market operators to continue to develop this standard.

ECISS OCPI contribution (deliverable 6.1 and 6.2)
In various work packages, ECISS has contributed to the further development from OCPI 2.2 to OCPI 3.0. OCPI 3.0. Specifications are published via

Download of both deliverables: ECISS Contributions for OCPI V2.2 & V3.0

Information accessible to all

The results of ECISS are being transferred to the EVRoaming Foundation. Like ECISS, this foundation’s aims include the promotion of transparent information exchange. The transfer ensures that the knowledge acquired by ECISS will remain accessible to all and that the development of the architecture, use cases, proposals for price transparency and new applications that have been produced can continue within an international context. The EVRoaming Foundation aims to make carefree charging possible for EV drivers anywhere. The foundation manages the independent OCPI protocol and also supports other activities to harmonize EV roaming internationally. The EVRoaming Foundation therefore makes a logical host for ECISS.

Disclaimer It has always been the intention of parties within ECISS to build on existing standards and protocols as much as possible. A new standard has been designed for the information architecture (FERA), and OCPI has proved to be an excellent candidate for the protocol. The products are independent and may be useful for different protocols. Anyone is free to use the deliverables.